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Cirugía Plástica Barcelona - Reconstrucción mamaria
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CIRUGIA PLÁSTICA

Reconstrucción mamaria

Consiste en crear una nueva mama, lo más parecida posible a una natural, en aquellas mujeres que han sufrido una mastectomía.
 

OBJETIVOS DE LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN MAMARIA

  • Crear una mama de aspecto natural, incluyendo si lo desea la paciente, el Complejo Areola-Pezón.
  • Eliminar la necesidad de emplear prótesis externas de relleno.
  • Restaurar la imagen corporal, mejorar la calidad de vida y proporcionar satisfacción a la paciente.
 

CANDIDATAS A LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN MAMARIA

Prácticamente todas las mujeres mastectomizadas pueden ser candidatas a la reconstrucción.
Si es posible eliminar completamente el tumor en la intervención de la mastectomía, podemos plantear la reconstrucción en el mismo acto quirúrgico ó Reconstrucción Inmediata, con el evidente beneficio psicológico que ello comporta. Si esta alternativa no es posible llevarla a cabo en la misma intervención por diferentes motivos, se optará por la Reconstrucción Diferida.

TÉCNICAS DE RECONSTRUCCIÓN MAMARIA

Existen diferentes  métodos de reconstrucción mamaria, por lo que el procedimiento a seguir debe decidirse en función a múltiples factores. Ello significa que cada caso debe tener una solución individualizada.
A grandes rasgos, las técnicas de reconstrucción pueden clasificarse en dos grupos: Expansión Cutánea y Reconstrucción mediante tejidos autólogos o propios.
 

RECONSTRUCCIÓN MEDIANTE EXPANSIÓN CUTÁNEA

Consiste en conseguir un bolsillo de piel mediante la colocación de un expansor  hinchable con una válvula incorporada. Posteriormente, y en la consulta, se irá rellenando de manera progresiva durante varias semanas. Una vez completado el proceso de expansión, se procederá a la sustitución del expansor por una prótesis mamaria definitiva.
 

RECONSTRUCCIÓN MEDIANTE TEJIDOS AUTÓLOGOS O PROPIOS

Consiste en la movilización o transplante de tejido procedente de otras zonas corporales, con el fin de crear una nueva mama. A este tejido movilizado desde otra localización, se le da el nombre de “colgajo”.
 
Los colgajos pueden trasladarse unidos a su ubicación de origen mediante un pedículo vascular, o pueden ser completamente separados y transplantarse al área mamaria mediante la conexión a los vasos sanguíneos de esta zona. A esto último se le llama Colgajo Microquirúrgico.
 
El origen de los colgajos mas utilizados en reconstrucción mamaria, es
  • Zona dorsal (espalda): Colgajo Dorsal Ancho
  • Zona Abdominal : TRAM, DIEP
  • Otras localizaciones: nalgas (SGAP), etc.

CIRUGÍA ONCOPLÁSTICA

Consiste en el abordaje de la cirugía oncológica mamaria, utilizando técnicas propias de la cirugía plástica, con el fin de conseguir el mejor resultado estético y funcional con el menor trauma quirúrgico posible. Se trata de un enfoque oncológico de carácter multidisciplinar, donde la colaboración del cirujano plástico, juntamente con otros especialistas implicados en el tratamiento de la patología mamaria, es de gran importancia. Todo ello redunda en beneficio de las pacientes, tanto desde el punto de vista clínico como psicológico.